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Exosome: A Novel Therapy for Dental Disorders

Exosome: A Novel Therapy for Dental Disorders

Exosomes are tiny vesicles with a diameter of 30 nm to 100 nm that are produced by cells in an organism through cytosolization into multivesicular vesicles and released into the extracellular environment through cell membrane fusion [1]. They contain functional proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs, and other substances and are primarily in charge of transferring information and material between cells [2]. This vesicular vesicle was formerly thought to represent some pointless cell secretion and detritus [3]. The exosome has emerged as a popular topic for research in recent years as an increasing number of studies have revealed that it can perform a variety of biological functions.

Formation and Working Mechanism of Exosomes

Exosomes can be found in a variety of cell types, including those from plants, animals, and humans. Almost every type of cell in the human body has the ability to secrete exosomes, which are widely dispersed in a variety of bodily fluids and carry a variety of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. [4]

Formation Process
1) Cell membrane invagination
2) Outgrowth to form multivesicular bodies
3) Release

Schematic of the exosome formation processFig. 1 Schematic of the exosome formation process(Krylova S.V., Feng D. 2023).

Exosome: A Novel Therapy for Dental Diseases

Recent research indicates that exosomes have the ability to control the growth of teeth, bone, salivary glands, and other tissues. They can also aid in the regeneration of periodontal and dental pulp tissues as well as the healing of maxillofacial tissues that have been damaged by trauma.

Li et al. found that exosomes of osteogenesis-induced ADSCs loaded on polylactic-hydroxyglycolic acid copolymers (PLGA) wrapped with polydopamine-coated (PLGA) scaffolds were found to significantly speed up the development of new bone at cranial defects in mice and to successfully construct cell-free tissue-engineered bone [5].

Huang et al. found that exosomes extracted from the two cultures could be endocytosed by dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) in a dose-dependent manner, activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and promoted osteogenic differentiation [6].

Mohammed et al. discovered that, in the teeth of rats with experimental periodontitis, exosomes secreted by murine ADSCs in conjunction with subgingival scraping and root planning decreased local inflammatory cells and promoted the regeneration of odontoid bone, alveolar bone, periodontal fibers, and blood vessels. This shows that exosomes may be utilized in conjunction with nonsurgical periodontal therapy to encourage the regeneration of periodontal tissue. [7]

What We Can Do for You

1) Customized and Formulation Support

Alta Dental Solution offers oral exosome development services tailored to specific therapeutic needs. We provide formulation support and collaborate closely with our clients to develop customized exosome-based drug delivery systems. Our technical team assists in exosome isolation, cargo loading, surface modification, and optimization of oral delivery strategies.

2) Research and Development Expertise

Alta Dental Solution possesses extensive expertise in exosome research and development. Our scientific team stays at the forefront of exosome-related advancements and employs cutting-edge techniques to engineer and optimize oral exosomes. Alta Dental Solution utilizes state-of-the-art characterization methods to ensure the quality, purity, and functionality of the developed oral exosomes.

3) Quality and Reliability

Alta Dental Solution maintains a strong focus on the quality and reliability of our oral exosome development services. We employ stringent quality control measures throughout the development process, from exosome isolation to cargo loading and formulation optimization. Our services are designed to deliver consistent and reliable oral exosome-based drug delivery systems.

4) Confidentiality and Intellectual Property Protection

We understand the importance of confidentiality and intellectual property protection. Alta Dental Solution prioritizes the security and confidentiality of client information and maintains strict confidentiality agreements. We work closely with our clients to protect their intellectual property rights and ensure the confidentiality of their proprietary formulations and technologies.

Dental diseases require innovative approaches to overcome the limitations of conventional treatment methods. Exosome systems offer unique solutions to dental disorders, by reducing apoptosis, attenuating inflammatory response, promoting angiogenesis, improving tissue repair potential and other important biological roles. Alta Dental Solution provides a comprehensive development service with the goal of advancing the field of dental research. If you have any needs, please feel free to contact us, we will respond to your inquiry in 1-3 business days.

References

  1. Phinney D. G.; Pittenger M. F. Concise review: MSC-derived exosomes for cell-free therapy. Stem Cells. 2017, 35(4):851-8.
  2. Riazifar M.; et al. Stem cell extracellular vesicles: extended messages of regeneration. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2017, 57:125-54.
  3. Timmers L.; et al. Reduction of myocardial infarct size by human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium. Stem Cell Research. 2008, 1(2):129-37.
  4. Simons M.; Raposo G. Exosomes-vesicular carriers for intercellular communication. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2009, 21(4):575-81.
  5. Li W.; et al. Tissue-engineered bone immobilized with human adipose stem cells-derived exosomes promotes bone regeneration. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018, 10(6):5240-54.
  6. Huang C. C.; et al. Exosomes as biomimetic tools for stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration. Biomaterials. 2016, 111:103-15.
  7. Mohammed E.; et al. Effect of adipose-derived stem cells and their exo as adjunctive therapy to nonsurgical periodontal treatment: a histologic and histomorphometric study in rats. Biomolecules. 2018, 8(4):167.
  8. Krylova S.V.; Feng D. The machinery of exosomes: Biogenesis, release, and uptake. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023, 24(2):1337.